Great Lakes Worm Watch

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Hale, C.M. 2008. PERSPECTIVE: Evidence for human-mediated dispersal of exotic earthworms: support for exploring strategeis to limit further spread. Molecular Ecology 17: 1165-1169.

Hale, C.M. 1996. The nuts and bolts of Minnesota ecology, and beautiful too! Book Review of Minnesota's Natural Heritage: an ecological perspective, By John R. Tester. The Prairie Naturalist 28(1): 33-34. (no PDF available)

Hale, C.M. 2004. Ecological consequences of exotic invaders: interactions involving European earthworms and native plant communities in hardwood forests. PhD dissertation. University of Minnesota, Department of Forest Resources, St Paul, MN.

Hale, C. M., L. E. Frelich, P. B. Reich. 2006. Changes in cold-temperate hardwood forest understory plant communities in response to invasion by European earthworms. Ecology 87(7): 1637-1649.

Hale, C.M., J. Pastor, K. Rusterholz. 1999. Comparison of structural and compositional characteristics in old-growth versus mature hardwood forests of Minnesota, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research29: 1479-1489.

Hale, C.M. and J. Pastor. 1998. Nitrogen content and decay rates of hollow versus solid hardwood logs. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28: 1276-1285.

Hale, C.M., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich, J. Pastor. 2008. Exotic earthworm effects on hardwood forest floor, nutrient availability and native plants: a mesocosm study. Oecologia 155:509-518.

Hale, C.M., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich, J. Pastor. 2005. Effects of European earthworm invasion on soil characteristics in northern hardwood forests of Minnesota, USA. Ecosystems 8:911-927.

Hale, C.M., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich. 2005. Exotic European earthworm invasion dynamics in northern hardwood forests of Minnesota, USA. Ecological Applications 15(3):848-860.

Hale, C.M. and G. E. Host. 2005. Assessing the impacts of European earthworm invasions in beechmaple hardwood and aspen-fir boreal forests of the western Great Lakes region. National Park Service Great Lakes Inventory and Monitoring Network Report GLKN/2005/11.

Hale, C.M., L.E. Frelich, P.B. Reich. 2004. Allometric equations for estimation of ash-free dry mass from length measurements for selected European earthworm species (Lumbricidae) in the western Great Lakes region. American Midland Naturalist 15(1):179-185.

Bohlen, P.J., S. Scheu, C.M. Hale, M.A. McLean, S. Migge, P.M. Groffman, D. Parkinson. 2004. Non-native invasive earthworms as agents of change in northern temperate forests. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2(8):427-435.

Callaham, Mac A., Jr., Grizelle González, Cynthia M. Hale, Liam Heneghan, Sharon L. Lachnicht, and Xiaoming Zou. In press. Policy and management responses to earthworm invasions. Biological Invasions, online first DOI:10.1007/s10530-006-9016-6

Frelich, Lee E., Cindy M. Hale, Stefan Scheu, Andy Holdsworth, Liam Heneghan, Patrick J. Bohlen, and Peter B. Reich. 2006. Earthworm invasion into previously earthworm-free temperate and boreal forests. Biological Invasions, online first DOI:10.1007/s10530-006-9019-3

Holdsworth, A. R., L. E. Frelich, and P. B. Reich. 2007. Regional extent of an ecosystem engineer: earthworm invasion in northern hardwood forests. Ecological Applications 17:1666–1677.

Holdsworth, A. R., L. E. Frelich, and P. B. Reich. 2007. Effects of earthworm invasion on plant species richness in northern hardwood forests. Conservation Biology 21:997-1008.

Hobbie, Sarah E., Peter B. Reich, Jacek Oleksyn, Megan Ogdahl,  Roma Zytkowiak, Cynthia Hale, and Piotr Karolewski. 2006. Species effects on litter chemistry and microenvironment regulate litter decomposition and forest floor dynamics in a common garden experiment with fourteen tree species. Ecology 87(9): 2288-2297

Larson, E.R., K.F. Kipfmueller, C.M. Hale, L.E. Frelich, and P.B. Reich. (2010) Tree Rings Detect Earthworm Invasions and their Effects in Northern Hardwood Forests. Biological Invasions 12(5):1053-1067.

Loss, S. R., Hueffmeier, R. M., Hale, C. M., Host, G. E., Sjerven, G., & Frelich, L. E. (2013). Earthworm Invasions in Northern Hardwood Forests: a Rapid Assessment Method. Natural Areas Journal, 33(1), 21-30.

Proulx, N. 2003. Ecological Risk Assessment of Non-indigenous Earthworm Species. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, 500 Lafayette Rd. St. Paul, MN 55155, Prepared for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, International Affairs, Division of Scientific Authority.

Reich, P.B., J. Oleksyn, J. Modrznyski, P. Mrozinski, S.E. Hobbie, D.M. Eissenstat, J. Chorover, OlA. Chadwick, C.M. Hale, and M.G. Tjoelker. 2005. Linking litter calcium, earthworms and soil properties: a common garden test with 14 tree species. Ecology Letters 8:811-818.

Reynolds, J.W., D.R. Linden, C.M. Hale. 2002. The earthworms of Minnesota (Oligochaeta: Acanthodrilidae, Lumbricidae and Megascolecidae). Megadrilogia 8(12):86-100.

Tiunov, A. V., C. M. Hale, A. R. Holdsworth, T. S. Perel. In press.  Invasion patterns of Lumbricidae into the previously earthworm-free areas of north-eastern Europe and the western Great Lakes region of North America. Biological Invasions, online first DOI:10.1007/s10530-006-9018-4

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